In the era of globalization, there is an urgent need to define and elaborate a legal model of disability. It must address both the rights of persons living with disabilities and also promote an inclusive, comprehensive approach to disability policies. It must also consider the needs of people with disabilities living in developing countries. This article focuses on the legal framework for disability in Russia and Kosovo. It also examines the role of media in representing disability within these countries. Finally, it examines the issue of participation of people with disabilities in the policy formulation and implementation processes.
The Russian Federation has signed the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This treaty requires Russia’s participation in ensuring that people with disabilities can live together in the community.
In recent years the Russian government has introduced important measures to protect people with disabilities. It has passed laws banning discrimination based upon disability and a law encouraging inclusive education. Russia still has many hurdles to overcome before it can achieve equal rights to all its citizens.
There is no single legal model, but it is clear that the Russian government must look at the entire legal model in order understand how it works. It must stop denying legal capacity, provide information on all legal tidbits and stop coercing citizens to transfer disabled children to government institutions.
One of the easiest ways for a country to measure its performance is to look at their social support infrastructure. These include laws regarding social protection, services for older citizens, evaluation of medical specialists, and laws concerning social insurance.
The Federal Law of 1995 on Social Protection of Disabled Persons of Russian Federation (Federal Law) is a good example of how federal law can address the problems of a country where there are many disabled citizens. While the federal law does have some limitations, it ensures that persons with disabilities and their family members can enjoy a decent standard life.
Among other things, the Russian Federation has implemented an official list of the most common and useful technological solutions for persons with disabilities. This list contains 23 sets of technical equipment, which are most desired by the largest segments of the disabled population.
There has been much debate about the Legal model of disability for Kosovo. The constitution protects people with disabilities against discrimination based upon race, religion, gender orientation. However, institutional barriers and ineffective law enforcement are restricting their access to society.
According to the World Health Organization in Kosovo, there are between 170,000-255,000 people with disabilities. These figures don’t include pensioners, so they are not complete. The Ministry of Labour also does not have any official figures on the employment rate of persons with disabilities.
The Government of Kosovo tried to improve its legal framework in order to make it more international-compliant. However, the process has been hampered due to political inertia as well as radical political tendencies.
Multiple revotes were organized by the Central Election Commission to prevent fraud during the 2010 election. However, the results showed voters had largely rejected three of the established parties. They instead supported self-determination and opposition parties.disability service providers melbourne
Kosovo also adopted a new draft law on freedom of association. This was an important step towards empowering the civil community. However, the proposal of the government was based upon vague provisions that would have made it difficult for NGOs to be formed.
Kosovo was also affected by the COVID-19 epidemic, which caused a significant economic contraction. It also increased pre-existing vulnerabilities.
Discrimination is a problem that has been around for a long time. Some ethnic minorities claim that the courts and police behave in an unjust manner towards them. Other issues include unequal funding and media exposure.
Despite these difficulties, there are positive developments. In December 2017, the government approved a new draft of the law on freedom to associate with NGOs. Compared to the previous draft law, it was more lenient. Moreover, the provisions relating to selective government advertising were outlawed.
The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, (CRPD), is a groundbreaking document and a paradigm shift for disability policy. It requires a change in perspective from government to guarantee equal rights.
One of CRPD’s most important innovations is the granting a primary right for support to individuals making decision. This gives them the ability to do their own work instead of waiting for others.
The social model is a fancy way of describing the idea of bringing together different types of people to work towards a common goal. This is the process of allowing people with disabilities work towards inclusion and liberation.
Similar to the human rights model for disability, it is focused on a concept of disability. It does not offer a single ontology.
The social model of disability offers a unified ontology while the human rights model is more specific. The social model of disability is not a fad.
In addition, the social model is a model that has been used for the development of interdisciplinarity in Disability Studies. And, it has even been used as the motto of the international disability movement.
For the most part, the human rights model has gained traction in the policy arena in the last few years. Although the social model for disability has not received as much attention, its contributions are significant.
On the other hand the social model was used to form CRPD. This characteristic has been a defining characteristic within the interdisciplinary movement for Disability Studies.
Participation of persons with disabilities to policy formulation and implementation
The participation of persons with disabilities (PWDs) in policy formulation and implementation is vital to ensure their rights are respected. The extent of inclusion of disabilities in policies is not well-established. This study examines whether mainstream AU documents include PWDs.
Many barriers remain despite the existence of international law regarding the rights of persons living with disabilities. These barriers are often inconsistent with the UNCRPD framework.
Participation of PWDs in policy formulation and implementation is necessary for the full implementation of the Convention. It is also important to address issues of stigma and discrimination. In all aspects of economic and social policy, it is important to consider the needs of people with disabilities. This includes employment, health, and other issues.
Many policies and programs are not need-based but they are not inclusive. It is vital to include all stakeholders during the development process. Data related to disability is an important tool for monitoring and evaluating. Additionally, data can be used to help develop policies and programs.
Lack of quality disability data is one of the biggest obstacles to inclusion of disability in the AU. It is vital to establish a comprehensive disability data collection system in order to monitor the effectiveness and efficiency of the AU’s policies on disability. Data should be consistent with the CRPD/SDG framework.
Also, a lack of financial resources can impact the viability and sustainability effective programs. A lack of political will can also prevent the allocation of adequate resources.
There have been positive developments but much still needs to be done. To close this gap, more regular engagement with Disability Person Organizations should be established.
Media representation of disability
It’s not difficult to see how media can influence our opinions and attitudes. The media industry is being pressured to change its portrayal of disability. The good news is that the industry is finally starting to pay attention.
While the most common forms of representation are still stereotypes, there are some edifying stories emerging. These stories represent a shift in how mainstream media is seeing and recognizing the value of the disabled community.
In addition to a wide range of entertainment options, the media has also been used as a platform for social awareness. The recent signing of the ADA shows that the industry is starting to pay attention and consider the voices of people with disabilities.
Recent research has shown that The Office of the BBC is a great example of mainstream media using storytelling to improve the lives for people with disabilities. The program addresses real-life social issues that affect disabled workers and features a disabled character who isn’t left behind.
The media has been a powerful source of negative messages, in addition to positive stories. Scope’s article shows how negative language in articles can have a significant influence on self-image.
Another example is the use humour to promote a message. Advertising agencies regularly use humour to get their point across. But what does the media have to do with this?
The media’s role in this process depends on a variety of factors. These include the intended audiences, the influence from other societal trends and individual interests.