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A Complete Guide to Valve Replacement Surgery in India 

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A Complete Guide to Valve Replacement Surgery in India 
A Complete Guide to Valve Replacement Surgery in India 

Aortic valve replacement surgery in India is an open heart surgery procedure in which a damaged or diseased aorta valve gets replaced with an artificial heart valve. This surgery helps solve aortic valve-related problems. 

When the heart valve opens, blood flows from the heart to the aorta and into the entire body. These heart valves assist the blood is flowing more efficiently throughout the heart. When the aorta valve closes, it prevents blood from flowing from the wrong path back into the heart. 

Some of the primary symptoms of aortic valve disease are Chest pain, abnormal heartbeat, swollen feet, breathlessness, etc.

Cardiac surgery or heart valve surgery is a major open-heart operation that involves replacing valves with artificial limbs, especially those made of human tissue and sometimes xenograft. In these four-valve chambers, the switch is closely related to the aortic valves as they are the only ones that treatment cannot repair. Mitral valves are easily adjusted, and the other two, namely – Pulmonic and tricuspid, are rare cases of injury.

The Need for Replacement of Aortic Valve:

The need to repair heart valves or replace them with surgery may arise when the valves are damaged or diseased and malfunctioning. Conditions such as valve stenosis (tightening or contraction of the valve) and valve replacement (leak valve) can get treated by replacing faulty valves (either mechanical or tissue valves).

Preparation for Valve Replacement Surgery in India:

A few weeks before the procedure, a patient needs to visit the hospital for a pre-admission check-up. The test involves a physical examination, and the doctor may ask the patient about their medical history, side effects, and medication. The physician will perform regular heart health tests, including blood tests, X-rays, ECG, and echocardiograms, to ensure that the individual is healthy for surgery.

The doctor will also explain what to expect before, during, and after the procedure and the possible risks. If a patient smokes, the doctor may prescribe them to quit smoking as it reduces the risk of complications after surgery, such as asthma or blood clots. It is also an excellent time to ask any questions about changing the aorta valve. During surgery, a patient may have to stay in the hospital for at least a week, so they will have to make some practical arrangements, including bringing clothes, toiletries, and other personal items, such as hearing aids and a cane.

The Procedure of Valve Surgery:

The procedure will get performed under general anaesthesia and takes 2-4 hours. The patient gets transferred to the workplace, and he will have general anaesthesia. The patient then will be connected to a (heart-lung) machine, which ensures that blood flows through the body during surgery. The patient’s heart is stationary, and there is an attachment to the heart and lungs. This machine performs the heart’s function, providing oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide.

There are various types of surgeries for this disease. Some of the well-known heart surgeries are:

Repairing or replacing valves with Catheter (Non-Surgical) Procedures: 

In this procedure, a small tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel (breast or arm) and connected to the heart, guided by thought techniques. The catheter enables the surgeon to visualize the interior of a video monitor and perform surgery.

A catheter procedure known as valvotomy is another unusual procedure to repair heart valves that cannot open fully (stenosis). During this procedure, a catheter (thin tube) with a balloon at its end is connected to a blood vessel (groin or arm) to a narrow valve in the heart. The balloon is inspired to help extend the valve. The surgeon then unloads the balloon and removes it and the catheter. During valvuloplasty, the patient is to be kept under the influence of standard anaesthesia that does not cause constipation.

Open heart surgery:

If the medication can only control the condition, open-heart surgery may be recommended. General anaesthesia is recommendable for this surgery, and it requires the use of a cardiovascular device to replace vital cardiovascular functions during surgery. Minor cuts are inserted between the baby’s ribs to reach the heart of the damaged valve, and the feature gets repaired using stitches or clips. In cases where the heart valves are severely damaged, damaged valves will get replaced with artificial valves (made by animal valves or human valves taken from donors).

Recovery from valve replacement surgery:

After surgery to replace the aortic valve, the patient will likely spend a day in the intensive care unit (ICU), and it will depend on the condition and the procedure. They will later take the patient to a regular ward for about a week.

A patient will be given fluids, oxygen, nutrients, and medicines through intravenous (IV) lines. A patient will need other tubes to remove urine from the bladder and remove fluid and blood from the chest.

While in the hospital, the doctor will look for signs of infection in the cut area, check blood pressure, breathing, and heart rate, and work to manage any pain the patient may feel after surgery. The patient should rest and reduce their activities initially. In time, however, the doctor may suggest beginning a regular physical activity or joining a cardiovascular rehabilitation program.

The recovery time may differ depending on the patient’s age, type of surgery, and a lifetime before surgery. The chest bone will usually take about 6 to 8 weeks to heal. However, it may take 2 to 3 months before returning to normal.

Conclusion:

The average expense of heart valve replacement surgery in India may vary from hospital to hospital in different cities. The success rate of this surgery is between 94 and 97%. 

As with other surgical procedures, patients undergoing heart transplant surgery are at risk for illness, neurological failure, or excessive bleeding. Other risks associated with heart valve function may include abnormal heart rhythms, valve leaks, blood clots, stroke, heart failure, and death. In some patients, the valves last 25 years without difficulty. But they are likely a new artificial valve that can last a lifetime. 

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